In L.A., burning all illusions: urban America sees its future
From The Nation, June 1, 1992 v254 n21 p743(4)
The armored personnel carrier squats on the corner like un gran sapo feo--"a
big ugly toad"--according to 9-year-old Emerio. His parents talk anxiously,
almost in a whisper, about the desaparecidos: Raul from Tepic, big Mario, the
younger Flores girl and the cousin from Ahuachapan. Like all Salvadorans, they
know about those who "disappear"; they remember the headless corpses
and the man whose tongue had been pulled through the hole in his throat like
a necktie. That is why they came here--to ZIP code 90057, Los Angeles, California.Now
they are counting their friends and neighbors, Salvadoran and Mexican, who are
suddenly gone. Some are still in the County Jail on Bauchet Street, little more
than brown grains of sand lost among the 17,000 ether alleged saqueadores (looters)
and incendarios (arsonists) detained after the most violent American civil disturbance
since the Irish poor burned Manhattan in 1863. Those without papers are probably
already back in Tijuana, broke and disconsolate, cut off from their families
and new lives. Violating city policy, the police fed hundreds of hapless undocumented
saqueadores to the I.N.S. for deportation before the A.C.L.U. or immigrant rights
groups even realized they had been arrested.
For many days the television talked only of the "South Central riot,"
"black rage" and the "Crips and Bloods." But Emerio's parents
know that thousands of their neighbors from the MacArthur Park district--home
to nearly one-tenth of all the Salvadorans in the world--also looted, burned,
stayed out past curfew and went to jail. (An analysis of the first 5,000 arrests
from all over the city revealed that 52 percent were poor Latinos, 10 percent
whites and only 38 percent blacks.) They
also know that the nation's first multiracial riot was as much about empty bellies and broken hearts as it was about police batons and Rodney King.
The week before the riot was unseasonably hot. At night the people lingered
outside on the stoops and sidewalks of their tenements (MacArthur Park is L.A.'s
Spanish Harlem), talking about theft new burden of trouble. In a neighborhood
far more crowded than mid-Manhattan and more dangerous than downtown Detroit,
with more crack addicts and gangbangers than registered Voters, la gente know
how to laugh away every disaster' except the final one. Yet there was a new
melancholy in the air.
Too many people have been losing their jobs: their pinche $5.25-an-hour jobs
as seamstresses, laborers, busboys and factory workers. In two years of recession,
unemployment has tripled in L.A.'s immigrant neighborhoods. At Christmas more
than 20,000 predominantly Latina women and children from throughout the central
city waited all night in the cold to collect a free turkey and a blanket from
charities. Other visible barometers of distress are the rapidly growing colonies
homeless companeros on the desolate flanks of Crown Hill and in the concrete bed of the L.A. River, where people are forced to use sewage water for bathing and cooking.
As mothers and fathers lose their jobs, or as unemployed relatives move under the shelter of the extended family, there is increasing pressure on teenagers to supplement the family income. Belmont High School is the pride of "Little Central America," but with nearly 4,500 students it is severely overcrowded, and an additional 2,000 students must be bused to distant schools in the San Fernando Valley and elsewhere. Fully 7,000 school-age teenagers in the Belmont area, moreover, have dropped out of school. Some have entered the vida loca of gang culture (there are 100 different gangs in the school district that includes Belmont High), but most are struggling to find minimum-wage footholds in a declining economy.
The neighbors in MacArthur Park whom I interviewed, such as Emerio's parents, all speak of this gathering sense of unease, a perception of a future already looted. The riot arrived like a magic dispensation. People were initially shocked by the violence, then mesmerized by the televised images of biracial crowds in South Central L.A. helping themselves to mountains of desirable goods without interference from the police. The next day, Thursday, April 30, the authorities blundered twice: first by suspending school and releasing the kids into the streets; second by announcing that the National Guard was on the way to help enforce a dusk-to-dawn curfew.
Thousands immediately interpreted this as a last call to participate in the general redistribution of wealth in progress. Looting spread with explosive force throughout Hollywood and MacArthur Park, as well as pans of Echo Park, Van Nuys and Huntington Park. Although arsonists spread terrifying destruction, the looting crowds were governed by a visible moral economy. As one middle-aged lady explained to me, "Stealing is a sin, but this is like a television game show where everyone in the audience gets to win." Unlike the looters in Hollywood (some on skateboards) who stole Madonna's bustier and all the crotchless panties from Frederick's, the masses of MacArthur Park concentrated on the prosaic necessities of life like cockroach spray and Pampers.
Now, one week later, MacArthur Park is in a state of siege. A special "We
Tip" hotline invites people to inform on neighbors or acquaintances suspected
of looting. Elite L.A.P.D. Metro Squad units, supported by the National Guard,
sweep through the tenements in search of stolen goods, while Border Patrolmen
from as far away as Texas prowl the streets. Frantic parents search for missing
kids, like mentally retarded 14-year-old Zuly Estrada, who is believed to have
been deported to Mexico.
Meanwhile, thousands of saqueadores, many of them pathetic scavengers captured
in the charred ruins the day after the looting, languish in County Jail, unable
to meet absurdly high balls. One man, caught with a packet of sunflower seeds
and two cartons of milk, is being held on $15,000; hundreds of others face felony
indictments and possible two-year prison terms. Prosecutors demand thirty-day
jail sentences for curfew violators, despite the fact that many of those are
homeless street people or Spanish-speakers who were unaware of the curfew. These are the "weeds" that George Bush says we must pull from the soil of our cities before it can be sown with the regenerating "seeds" of enterprise zones and tax breaks for private capital.
There is rising apprehension that the entire community will become a scapegoat.
An ugly, seal-the-border nativism has been growing like crabgrass in Southern
California since the start of the recession. A lynch mob of Orange County Republicans,
led by Representative Dana Rohrabacher of Huntington Beach, demands the immediate
deportation of all the undocumented immigrants arrested in the disturbance,
while liberal Democrat Anthony Beilenson, sounding like the San Fernando
Valley's Son-of-Le-Pen, proposes to strip citizenship from the U.S.-born children of illegals. According to Roberto Lovato of MacArthur Park's Central American Refugee Center, "We are becoming the guinea pigs, the Jews, in the militarized laboratory where George Bush is inventing his new urban order."
A Black Intifada?
"Little Gangster" Tak can't get over his amazement that he is actually standing in the same room of Brother Aziz's mosque with a bunch of Inglewood Crips. The handsome, 22-year-old Tak, a "straight up" Inglewood Blood who looks more like a black angel by Michelangelo than one of the Boyz N the Hood, still has two Crip bullets in his body, and "they still carry a few of mine2' Some of the Crips and Bloods, whose blue or red gang colors have been virtual tribal flags, remember one another from school playground days, but mainly they have met over the barrels of automatics in a war that has divided Inglewood--the pleasant, black-majority city southwest of L.A. where the Lakers play--by a river of teenage blood. Now, as Tak explains, "Everybody knows what time it is. If we don't end the killing now and unite as black men, we never will."
Although Imam Aziz and the Nation of Islam have provided the formal auspices for peacemaking, the real hands that have "tied the red and blue rags together into a 'black thang'" are in Simi Valley. Within a few hours of the first attack on white motorists, which started in 8-Trey (83rd Street) Gangster Crip territory near Florence and Normandie, the insatiable war between the Crips and Bloods, fueled by a thousand neighborhood vendettas and dead homeboys, was "put on hold" throughout Los Angeles and the adjacent black suburbs of Compton and Inglewood.
Unlike the 1965 rebellion, which broke out south of Watts and remained primarily focused on the poorer east side of the ghetto, the 1992 riot reached its maximum temperature along Crenshaw Boulevard--the very heart of black Los Angeles's more affluent west side. Despite the illusion of full-immersion "actuality" provided by the minicam and the helicopter, television's coverage of the riot's angry edge was even more twisted than the melted steel of Crenshaw's devastated shopping centers. Most reporters--"image looters" as they are now being called in South Central--merely lip-synched suburban cliches as they tramped through the ruins of lives they had no desire to understand. A violent kaleidoscope of bewildering complexity was flattened into a single, categorical scenario: legitimate black anger over the King decision hijacked by hard-core street criminals and transformed into a maddened assault on their own community.
Local television thus unwittingly mimed the McCone Commission's summary judgment that the August 1965 Watts riot was primarily the act of a hoodlum fringe. In that case, a subsequent U.C.L.A. study revealed that the "riot of the riffraff" was in fact a popular uprising involving at least 50,000 workingclass adults and their teenage children. When the arrest records of this latest uprising are finally analyzed, they will probably also vindicate the judgment of many residents that all segments of black youth, gang and non-gang, "buppie" as well as underclass, took part in the disorder.
Although in Los Angeles, as elsewhere, the new black middle class has socially and spatially pulled farther apart from the deindustrialized black working class, the L.A.P. D2s Operation Hammer and other antigang dragnets that arrested kids at random (entering their names and addresses into an electronic gang roster that is now proving useful in house-tohouse searches for riot "ringleaders") have tended to criminalize black youth without class distinction. Between 1987 and 1990, the combined sweeps of the L.A.P.D. and the County Sheriff's Office ensnared 50,000 "suspects." Even the children of doctors and lawyers from View Park and Windsor Hills have had to "kiss the pavement" and occasionally endure some of the humiliations that the homeboys in the flats face every day--experiences that reinforce the reputation of the gangs (and their poets laureate, the gangster rappers like lee Cube and N.W.A.) as the heroes of an outlaw generation. Yet if the riot had a broad social base, it was the participation of the gangs--or, rather, their cooperation--that gave it constant momentum and direction. If the 1965 rebellion was a hurricane, leveling one hundred blocks of Central Avenue from Vernon to Imperial Highway, the 1992 riot was a tornado, no less destructive but snaking a zigzag course through the commercial areas of the ghetto and beyond. Most of the media saw no pattern in its path, just blind, nihilistic destruction. In fact, the arson was ruthlessly systematic. By Friday morning 90 percent of the myriad Korean-owned liquor stores, markets and swapmeets in South Central L.A. had been wiped out. Deserted by the L.A.P.D., which made no attempt to defend small businesses, the Koreans suffered damage or destruction to almost 2,000 stores from Compton to the heart of Koreatown itself. One of the first to be attacked (although, ironically, it survived) was the grocery store where 15-year-old Latasha Harlins was shot in the back of the head last year by Korean grocer Soon Ja Du in a dispute over a $1.79 bottle of orange juice. The girl died with the money for her purchase in her hand. Latasha Harlins. A name that was scarcely mentioned on television was the key to the catastrophic collapse of relations between L.A.'s black and Korean communities. Ever since white judge Joyce Karlin let Du off with a $500 fine and some community service--a sentence which declared that the taking of a black child's life was scarcely more serious than drunk driving--some interethnic explosion has been virtually inevitable. The several near-riots at the Compton courthouse this winter were early warning signals of the black community's unassuaged grief over Harlins's murder. On the streets of South Central Wednesday and Thursday, I was repeatedly told, "This is for our baby sister. This is for Latasha."
The balance of grievances in the community is complex. Rodney King is
the symbol that links unleashed police racism in Los Angeles to the
crisis of black life everywhere, from Las Vegas to Toronto. Indeed, it
is becoming clear that the King case may be almost as much of a
watershed in American history as Dred Scott, a test of the very meaning
of the citizenship for which African-Americans have struggled for 400
But on the grass-roots level, especially among gang youth, Rodney King
may not have quite the same profound resonance. As one of the Inglewood
Bloods told me: "Rodney King? Shit, my homies be beat like dogs by the
police every day. This riot is about all the homeboys murdered by the
police, about the little sister killed by the Koreans, about
twentyseven years of oppression. Rodney King just the trigger."
At the same time, those who predicted that the next L.A. riot would be
a literal Armageddon have been proved wrong. Despite a thousand Day-Glo
exhortations on the walls of South Central to "Kill the Police," the
gangs have refrained from the deadly guerrilla warfare that they are so
formidably equipped to conduct. As in 1965, there has not been a single
L.A.P.D. fatality, and indeed few serious police injuries of any kind.
In this round, at least, the brunt of gang power was directed toward
the looting and destruction of the Korean stores. If Latasha Harlins is
the impassioned pretext, there may be other agendas as well. I saw
graffiti in South Central that advocated "Day one: burn them out. Day
two: we rebuild." The only national leader whom most Crips and Bloods
seem to take seriously is Louis Farrakhan, and his goal of black
economic self-determination is broadly embraced. (Farrakhan, it should
be emphasized, has never advocated violence as a means to this end.) At
the Inglewood gang summit, which took place on May 5, there were
repeated references to a renaissance of black capitalism out of the
ashes of Korean businesses. "After all," an ex-Crip told me later,
didn't burn our community, just their stores."
In the meantime, the police and military occupiers of Los Angeles give
no credence to any peaceful, let alone entrepreneurial, transformation
of L.A.'s black gang cultures. The ecumenical movement of the Crips and
Bloods is their worst imagining: gang violence no longer random but
politicized into a black intifada. The L.A.P.D. remembers only too well
that a generation ago the Watts rebellion produced a gang peace out of
which grew the Los Angeles branch of the Black Panther Party. As if to
prove their suspicions, the police have circulated a copy of an
anonymous and possibly spurious leaflet calling for gang unity and "an
eye for an eye .... If L.A.P.D. hurt a black we'll kill two."
For its part, the Bush Administration has federalized the repression in
L.A. with an eye to the spectacle of the President marching in triumph,
like a Roman emperor, with captured Crips and Bloods in chains. Thus,
the Justice Department has dispatched to L.A. the same elite task force
of federal marshals who captured Manuel Noriega in Panama as
reinforcements for L.A.P.D. and F.B.I. efforts to track down the
supposed gang instigators of the riot. But as a veteran of the 1965
riot said while watching SWAT teams arrest some of the hundreds of
rival gang members trying to meet peacefully at Watts's Jordan Downs
Housing Project: "That ole fool Bush think we as dumb as Saddam. Land
Marines in Compton and get himself re-elected. But this ain't Iraq.
This is Vietnam, Jack."
The Great Fear
A core grievance fueling the Watts rebellion and the subsequent urban insurrections of 1967-68 was rising black unemployment in the midst of a boom economy. What contemporary journalists fearfully described as the beginning of the "Second Civil War" was as much a protest against black America's exclusion from the military-Keynesian expansion of the 1960s as it was an uprising against police racism and de facto segregation in schools and housing. The 1992 riot and its possible progenies must likewise be understood as insurrections against an intolerable political-economic order. As even the Los Angeles Times, main cheerleader for "World City L.A." now editorially acknowledges, the "globalization of Los Angeles" has produced "devastating poverty for those weak in skills and resources,,'
Although the $1 billion worth of liquor stores and minimalls destroyed
in L.A. may seem like chump change next to the $2.6 trillion recently
annihilated on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the burning of Oz probably
fits into the same Hegelian niche with the bursting of the Bubble
Economy: not the "end of history" at the seacoast of Malibu but the
beginning of an ominous dialectic on the rim of the Pacific. It was a
hallucination in the first place to imagine that the wheel of the world
economy could be turned indefinitely by a Himalaya of U.S. trade
deficits and a fictitious yen.
This structural crisis of the Japan-California "co-prosperity sphere,"
however, threatens to translate class contradictions into interethnic
conflict on both the national and local level. Culturally distinct
"middleman" groups--ethnic entrepreneurs and the like--risk being
as the personal representatives of the invisible hand that has looted
local communities of economic autonomy. In the case of Los Angeles, it
was tragically the neighborhood Korean liquor store, not the skyscraper
corporate fortress downtown, that became the symbol of a despised new
On their side, the half-million Korean-Americans in L.A. have been
psychologically lacerated by the failure of the state to protect them
against black rage. Indeed, several young Koreans told me that they
were especially bitter that the South Central shopping malls controlled
by Alexander Haagen, a wealthy contributor to local politics, were
quickly defended by police and National Guard, while their stores were
leisurely ransacked and burned to the ground. "Maybe this is what we
get," a U.C.L.A. student said, "for uncritically buying into the white
middle class's attitude toward blacks and its faith in the police.,'
The prospects for a multicultural reconciliation in Los Angeles depend
much less on white knight Peter Ueberroth's committee of corporate
rebuilders than upon a general economic recovery in Southern
California. As the Los Angeles Business Journal complained (after
noting that L.A. had lost I(X),000 manufacturing jobs over the past
three years), "The riots are like poison administered to a sick
Forecasts still under wraps at the Southern California Association of
Governments paint a dark future for the Land of Sunshine, as job
growth, slowed by the decline of aerospace as well as manufacturing
shifts to Mexico, lags far behind population increase. Unemployment
rates--not counting the estimated 40,000 jobs lost from the riot, and
the uprising's impact on the business climate--are predicted to remain
at 8 to 10 percent (and 40 to 50 percent for minority youth) for the
next generation, while the housing crisis, already the most acute in
the nation, will spill over into new waves of homelessness. Thus, the
"widening divide" of income inequality in Los Angeles County, described
in a landmark 1988 study by U.C.L.A. professor Paul Ong, will become an
unbridgeable chasm. Southern California's endless summer is finally
Affluent Angelenos instinctively sensed this as they patrolled their Hancock Park estates with shotguns or bolted in their BMWs for white sanctuaries in Orange and Ventura counties. From Palm Springs poolsides they anxiously awaited news of the burning of Beverly Hills by the Crips and Bloods, and fretted over the extra set of house keys they had foolishly entrusted to the Latina maid. Was she now an incendiarist? Although their fears were hysterically magnified, tentacles of disorder did penetrate such sanctums of white life as the Beverly Center and Westwood Village, as well as the Melrose and Fairfax neighborhoods. Most alarmingly, the L.A.P.D's "thin blue line," which had protected them in 1965, was now little more than a defunct metaphor, the last of Chief Gates's bad jokes.